The Impact of Human Resources Aspects in Supporting Readiness for Change at PT Pertamina (Persero)


Moresia Raditya
Hafiz Rahman
Rahmi Fahmy


The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the impact of employee engagement and resistance to change on readiness for change with perceived organizational support as an intervening variable in change management at PT Pertamina (Persero). Readiness for change is an important thing that must be considered by companies when implementing change management. Aspects of human resources that affect readiness for change are employee engagement, resistance to change, and perceived organizational support. In this case, the researcher focuses on perceived organizational support variable as an intervening variable that links employee engagement and resistance to change with readiness for change. The population of this research were employees of PT Pertamina (Persero) with a sample of 154 people. The analytical method used descriptive statistical analysis and factor description analysis using SPSS V.23 and SmartPLS 3.0 software. The results showed that employee engagement and resistance to change have a positive and negative impact on perceived organizational support; employee engagement and perceived organizational support have no impact on readiness for change; resistance to change has a negative impact on readiness for change; employee engagement and resistance to change have no impact on readiness for change with perceived organizational support as intervening variable.


How to Cite
Raditya, M., Rahman, H., & Fahmy, R. (2021). The Impact of Human Resources Aspects in Supporting Readiness for Change at PT Pertamina (Persero). Enrichment : Journal of Management, 12(1), 65-72. Retrieved from


[1] Kachian, A., Elyasi, S. & Haghani, H. (2018). ADKAR model and nurses' readiness for change. Journal of Client-Centered Nursing Care, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 203-212.
[2] Scaccia, J.P., Cook, B.S., Lamont, A., Wandersman, A., Castellow, J., Katz, J., & Beidas, R.S. (2015). A practical implementation science heuristic for organizational readiness r = mc2. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 484-501.
[3] Samir, D., Abdenour, M. (2016). A study on quality of work life and readiness for organizational change among Algerian University Professors. Journal of Economic Sciences, Management and Commercial Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 16, pp. 1-12.
[4] Parent, J.D., Kathi J.L. (2018). Employee engagement, positive organizational culture and individual adaptability. On the Horizon.
[5] Pieterse, J.H., Caniels, M.C., & Homan, T. (2012). Professional discourses and resistance to change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 25 No. 6, pp. 798-818.
[6] Stouten, J., Rousseau, D., & de Cremer, D. (2018). Successful organizational change: Integrating the management practice and scholarly literatures. Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 752-788.
[7] Costello, J.E., Arghode, V. (2019). Exploring member readiness for change in manufacturing industries using phenomenology. Management Research Review, Vol. 43, No. 7, pp. 847-861.
[8] Griffin, M.A., Patterson, M.G., & West, M.A. (2001). Job satisfaction and teamwork: The role of supervisor support. Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 22, pp. 537–550.
[9] Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I.L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 565–573.
[10] Kurtessis, J. N., Eisenberger, R., Ford, M. T., Buffardi, L. C., Stewart, K. A., & Adis, C. S. (2015). Perceived organizational support: A meta-analytic evaluation of organizational support theory. Journal of Management, Vol. 20, No. 10, pp. 1-31.
[11] Thakur, R.R., Srivastava, S. (2018). From resistance to readiness: Role of mediating variables. Journal of Organizational Change Management.
[12] Bernerth, J. (2004). Expanding our understanding of the change message. Human Resource Development Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 36-52.
[13] Yu, M., Lee, M. (2015). Unlocking the black box: Exploring the link between perceive organizational support and resistance to change. Asia Pacific Management Review, Vol. 20, pp.177-183.
[14] Bedarkar, M., Pandita, D. (2014). A study on the drivers of employee engagement impacting employee performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 133, pp. 106-115.
[15] Kovaleski, B.J., Arghode, V. (2020). Employee engagement: Exploring higher education non-tenure track faculty members’ perceptions. European Journal of Training and Development.
[16] Dai, K.L., Qin, X.Y. (2016). Perceived organizational support and employee engagement: Based on the research of organizational identification and organizational justice. Open Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 4, pp. 46 - 57.
[17] Sirisetti, S. (2012). Employee engagement culture. The Journal of Commerce, Vol. 4, No. 1. ISSN: 2218-8118, 2220-6043.
[18] Schaufeli.W.B., Bakker, A.B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi sample study. Journal of Organisational Behaviour. Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 293-315.
[19] Liang, G.Q. & Zhang, W. (2015). Effect of organizational support on job involvement: The mediating role of psychological capital. Management and Administration. No. 9, pp. 135-137.
[20] Will, M.G., (2015). Successful organizational change through win-win. Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 193 – 214
[21] Pereira, V.R., Maximiano, A.C.A., Bido, D.D.S. (2019). Resistance to change in BPM implementation. Business Process Management Journal.
[22] Garcia-Cabrera, A.M., Hernandez, F.G-B. (2014). Differentiating the three components of resistance to change: The moderating effect of organization-based self-esteem on the employee involvement-resistance relation. Wiley Online Library, Vol. 25, No. 4.
[23] Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 15, pp. 73-101.
[24] Welch, M. (2011). The evolution of the employee engagement concept: communication implications. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 328-346.
[25] Gallup. (2011). Employee engagement: What’s your employee ratio? Washington: Gallup Consulting. Retrieved from
[26] Wulandari, B., Jaya, G.E.D., Hasnida. (2020). The effect of perceived organizational support and employee engagement on readiness to change. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies (IJPSAT), pp. 24-27.
[27] Sharma, T., Singh S. (2018). Relationship of emotional intelligence with cultural intelligence and change readiness of Indian managers in the service sector. Journal of Organizational Change Management.
[28] Holt, D.T., Vardaman, J.M. (2013). Toward a comprehensive understanding of readiness for change: The case for an expanded conceptualization. Journal of Change Management, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 9-18.
[29] Bouckenooghe, D., Devos, G. & Van den Broeck, H. (2009). Organizational change questionnaire - climate of change, processes and readiness: Development of a new instrument. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, Vol. 143, No. 6, pp. 559-599.
[30] Rafferty, A.E., Jimmieson, N.L., & Armenakis, A. A. (2013). Change readiness: A multilevel review. Journal of Management, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 110–135.
[31] Jabbarian, J. & Chegini, M. (2017). The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on Employee Resistance to Change: A Study on Guilan Municipal Staff. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, Vol. 5, No. 642.
[32] Sekaran, U., Bougie, R. (2017). Metode penelitian untuk bisnis: pendekatan pengembangan-keahlian. Edisi 6, Buku 1, Cetakan Kedua. Jakarta Selatan: Salemba Empat.
[33] PT Pertamina (Persero). (2021, May 17). Annual Report 2019. Retrieved from
[34] Sugiyono. (2013). Statistik untuk penelitian. Bandung: CV. Alfabeta.
[35] Dawley, D., Houghton, J.D., & Bucklew, N.S. (2010). Perceived organizational support and turnover intention: The mediating effects of personal sacrifice and job fit. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 150, No. 3, pp. 238–257.
[36] Abdillah, W., Jogiyanto, H.M. (2009). Konsep dan aplikasi PLS (partial least square) untuk penelitian empiris. Yogyakarta: Badan Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis UGM.
[37] Ghozali, I., Latan, H. (2015). Partial least squares: Concepts, techniques and applications using SmartPLS 3. Semarang: Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.
[38] Wong, K.K.K. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24, 1 – 32.
[39] Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M., & Hair, J.F. (2017). Partial least square structural equation modeling. Handbook of Market Research, 1 – 40.
[40] Henseler, J. & Hubona, G. & Ray, P. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: Updated guidelines. Industrial Management & Amp Data Systems. Vol. 116, No. 2, pp. 20.
[41] Cangur, S., Ercan, I. (2015). Comparison of model fit indices used in structural equation modeling under multivariate normality. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 152-167.
[42] SmartPLS GmbH. (2021, May 7). PLS Algorithm. Retrieved from